We studied oral glucocorticoids and osteonecrosis , a rare but serious bone disease, in individuals with various chronic inflammatory diseases. We hypothesised that we would find stronger associations in adults versus children and in people with autoimmune diseases. Retrospective cohort study. Population-representative data (1994-2013) from general practices in the UK. Children and adults diagnosed with asthma; inflammatory bowel disease; juvenile, psoriatic or rheumatoid arthritis; psoriasis; or systemic lupus. Oral glucocorticoid patterns. Diagnosed osteonecrosis (primary) and osteonecrosis plus clinical features (eg, symptoms, pain medication, surgical repair) ( secondary ). Discrete time failure models estimated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of incident osteonecrosis following oral glucocorticoid exposure. Hypothesis testing was one sided (with corresponding 90% CI) since glucocorticoids were unlikely protective. After adjusting for demographic, disease-related and health utilisation factors, glucocorticoid exposure was associated with osteonecrosis in adults (ages 18-49, aHR (90% CI to ); ages ≥50, aHR (90% CI to )). However, low-dose glucocorticoids, corresponding to average doses
The trench gate structure is one of the promising techniques to reduce on-state resistance (R on) for silicon power devices, such as insulated gate bipolar transistors and power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. In addition, it has been reported that stress is induced around the trench gate area, modifying the carrier mobilities. We evaluated the one-dimensional distribution and anisotropic biaxial stress by quasi-line excitation and water-immersion Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results clearly confirmed anisotropic biaxial stress in state-of-the-art silicon power devices. It is theoretically possible to estimate carrier mobility using piezoresistance coefficients and anisotropic biaxial stress . The electron mobility was increased while the hole mobility was decreased or remained almost unchanged in the silicon (Si) power device. The stress significantly modifies the R on of silicon power transistors. Therefore, their performance can be improved using the stress around the trench gate.