Cross-sex steroid hormones

Overall, these findings may suggest that besides estrogen levels, the degree of testosterone suppression may also be an important factor regarding breast development in trans women. Androgen levels have indeed been found to inhibit breast tissue proliferation in vitro [35–37] in rodents [38] and monkeys [39,40]. However, in human clinical studies, the results are inconclusive as most [41,42] but not all studies [43,44] observed that higher total testosterone levels are associated with increased breast tissue proliferation in both pre and postmenopausal women.

The distinction between erotica and pornography (as well as the lesser known genre of sexual entertainment, ribaldry) is difficult to identify as it is, to a degree, highly personal. Essentially, the difference lies in the individual's approach to sexuality and the sex act. Inexperience and a simplistic social model of sexuality tends to produce a prurient and undeveloped approach to sexual pleasure, which revels in the deliberate flouting and perversion of accepted moral principles. A more open view of sexuality tends to set the moral view aside and accepts that sexual gratification is the right of each human being and each has the right to pursue that in their own way without judgmental burdens being placed on them by external sources.

Erotic art tends to spring from this latter, more amoral viewpoint. Proponents for erotic art argue that such work is intended to be artistically interesting and deliberate rather than simply sexually stimulating, and is therefore not pornographic. Opponents see this as a pretentious stand as they believe that erotic art is indeed intended for sexual arousal.

The issue of whether a distinction can be made between erotica and pornography raises multiple complicated questions. These questions include whether aesthetic and erotic feelings are mutually exclusive, how the level of commercialism and tastefulness in an artwork can be objectively measured, and at what point they make the work pornographic.

In general, "erotica" refers to portrayals of sexually arousing material that hold or aspire to artistic, scientific or human merit, whereas "pornography" often connotes the commercial, prurient, morally valueless depiction of sexual acts, with little or no artistic value.

In a study of 1,685 patients treated with CPA, elevated liver enzymes were seen in 10% of patients at a dosage of 50 mg/day and in 20% of patients at a dosage of greater than 100 mg/day. [50] A study of 2,506 patients given 18–136 mg/day for less than 48 months per patient reported a rate of %. [51] [52] In a trial of 89 prostate cancer patients who received high-dose CPA for 4 years, there were elevated liver enzymes in % of the patients. [52] Yet another study of 105 patients found a hepatotoxicity rate of %, with serious hepatic injury occurring in %. [52] In 2002, it was reported that there were 18 case reports of CPA-associated hepatitis in the medical literature, with 6 of the cases resulting in death. [50] In addition, a review article cited a report of 96 instances of hepatotoxicity that were attributed to CPA, and 33 of these instances resulted in death. [50] Moreover, a 2014 review found that 15 cases specifically of CPA-induced fulminant (sudden-onset and severe) liver failure had been reported to date, with only one of these cases not resulting in death. [52] As such, the prognosis of CPA-induced liver failure is death. [52]

Male and female brains are, on average, slightly different in structure, although there is tremendous individual variability. Several studies have looked for signs that transgender people have brains more similar to their experienced gender. Spanish investigators—led by psychobiologist Antonio Guillamon of the National Distance Education University in Madrid and neuropsychologist Carme Junqué Plaja of the University of Barcelona—used MRI to examine the brains of 24 female-to-males and 18 male-to-females—both before and after treatment with cross-sex hormones. Their results, published in 2013, showed that even before treatment the brain structures of the trans people were more similar in some respects to the brains of their experienced gender than those of their natal gender. For example, the female-to-male subjects had relatively thin subcortical areas (these areas tend to be thinner in men than in women). Male-to-female subjects tended to have thinner cortical regions in the right hemisphere, which is characteristic of a female brain. (Such differences became more pronounced after treatment.)

Cross-sex steroid hormones

cross-sex steroid hormones

Male and female brains are, on average, slightly different in structure, although there is tremendous individual variability. Several studies have looked for signs that transgender people have brains more similar to their experienced gender. Spanish investigators—led by psychobiologist Antonio Guillamon of the National Distance Education University in Madrid and neuropsychologist Carme Junqué Plaja of the University of Barcelona—used MRI to examine the brains of 24 female-to-males and 18 male-to-females—both before and after treatment with cross-sex hormones. Their results, published in 2013, showed that even before treatment the brain structures of the trans people were more similar in some respects to the brains of their experienced gender than those of their natal gender. For example, the female-to-male subjects had relatively thin subcortical areas (these areas tend to be thinner in men than in women). Male-to-female subjects tended to have thinner cortical regions in the right hemisphere, which is characteristic of a female brain. (Such differences became more pronounced after treatment.)

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